Abusing the Solr local parameters feature – LocalParams injection

Solr is an open source search platform built by the Apache project. You can read more about it at the Solr site, but I’ll go straight to the point. Quite a few sites has based their search functionality on Solr and many of them suffer from a small problem, that I call “LocalParams injection” for lack of a better word (please suggest something more fitting, or tell me if there already is a term for this).


LocalParams is a way to insert meta data about the search into the query string. For example, if the user searches for “food”, and has indicated the she wants 20 rows per page, we can change the query to “{! rows=20} food” before we send it to the query parser.

A vulnerability

What I have seen is that many Solr implementations fail to sanitize the search string properly and allow the LocalParams syntax to pass through. This makes it possible to inject whatever local parameters you want to into the query. I have been experimenting with the rows parameter, but there probably are other ways to abuse this functionality.

A potential exploit

So what can you do? Well, if you first make a search that results in a great number of hits (sometimes *, or *:*, works, which means all documents), you can then prefix it with {! rows=the same number}. The server now has to serve you all these results on one page. For some sites, this takes a very long time.

I am suggesting that by making a (not that large) number of these requests (with small variations to defeat caching) simultaneously you could potentially carry out a Denial of Service attack against the search server, or maybe even the web site if they share resources. I have not tried this, though, and can’t say for sure that I am right.

Reported and fixed

I have reported this vulnerability to a number of sites and most of them have fixed it already. These include:

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